ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Arup MitraSubscribe to Arup Mitra

Labour Market Mobility of Low Income Households

According to the "over-urbanisation" thesis, migrants move into the urban areas in search of jobs, and in the face of limited employment opportunities in the high productivity industrial sector, they continue to work in low productivity activities. Urban poverty here is a spillover of rural poverty. But why do migrants not return to the rural areas if they continue to be engaged in low productivity activities? The reason could be that the informal sector offers them a better source of livelihood compared to rural avenues. This argument prompts us to pose a number of questions from an empirical standpoint. Based on primary surveys of slum dwellers in Delhi, the author examines if workers managed to experience a change in their occupation, over time. Even when the broad occupation categories remain the same, does the nature of employment change and do income levels rise? If so, what role do networks play in helping them access better paying jobs. The findings tend to support upward mobility in a limited sense though.

Rural Migrants and Labour Segmentation

Whether people benefit sizeably by migrating from rural to urban areas is a question that has loomed large in development economics literature. Based on a primary survey carried out among slum-dwellers in Delhi, this study examines the links between duration of migration, distance of migration, occupation and the incidence of poverty. With experience, it is found that migrants are more likely to move from low income and casual jobs to high income and regular jobs, and thus undergo an increase in their standards of living.

Total Factor Productivity Growth and Technical Efficiency in Indian Industries

Based on the panel data for 15 major states in India, this article estimates the time-variant technical efficiency and total factor productivity growth for 17 two-digit industry groups. The total factor productivity growth (TFPG) in a large number of industries seems to have improved across most of the states during 1985-86 to 1992-93 as compared with the rates estimated for the period 1976-77 to 1984-85. Technology acquisition, efficient utilisation of resources and infrastructure development are some of the factors which possibly contributed to the increase in TFPG.

Labour Mobility in China

union recognition, permitting greater freedom for direct industrial action by TUs by making them responsible for the consequences of such action: these are some of the ideas he strongly pleads for.

Changing Composition of Employment in Tertiary Sector-A Cross-Country Analysis

A large number of countries all over the world mostly developing and some industrial are at present implementing stabilisation and structural adjustment programmes. Deregulation and more particularly globalisation in many of these countries are likely to enhance the share of foreign trade in the economy. The domestic production structure is also likely to undergo radical change in the process of deregulation. All these would have a significant effect on the employment structure. The authors ' empirical results suggest that these will affect not only the overall share of the tertiary sector in total employment but will also change the employment structure. The implications of these changes deserve careful analysis.

Understanding the Informal Sector

says that "industrialisation is not only about getting prices right; it is also about getting state intervention right". As he puts it, in a world of uneven development, rapid technical progress, ever-changing comparative advantage and imperfect market structures, the role of government in industrialisation remains vital Human resource development, acquisition of technological and managerial capabilities and the creation of institutions 'INFORMAL SECTOR' is a term in the development economics literature which has been used extensively by scholars despite severe criticisms. The volume under review is a fruitful attempt in such usage. I call it 'fruitful' because while the term is used without bothering too much about a clear understanding of its characteristics, the book succeeds in integrating various issues and in interpreting the term in an operationally meaningful way.

Labour Market Flexibility

The Indian Labour Market and Economic Structural Change edited by L K Deshpande and Gerry Rodgers; BR Publishing Corporation, Delhi 1994;
WITH the structural adjustment programme under implementation, an understanding of the nature and response of the labour market is essential, for the efficacy and success of the new economic policy depend to a large extent on the functioning of the labour market. The volume under review, published earlier as a special number of the Indian Journal of Labour Economics, will be widely read mainly because of its topicality and its success in integrating several aspects of the Indian labour market.

Employment and Structural Adjustment-A Look at 1991 Census Data

Employment and Structural Adjustment A Look at 1991 Census Data B B Bhattacharya Arup Mitra The 1991 Census data on employment reveal that despite a significant acceleration of the industrial growth rate during the 80s, the share of manufaturing in total employment has declined. The employment elasticity in the manufacturing sector turns out to be as low as 0.2. Further, the employment growth in the private organised manufacturing has been negative during the 80s.

Sex Ratio and Violence-Spurious Results

Sex Ratio and Violence Spurious Results Arup Mitra THE grand debate on gender ratio in the Indian context gains momentum further as Philip Oldenburg (1992) in his recent piece attaches a new dimension to the issue. To explain the Bermuda Triangle for Girls' of west-central UP and the surrounding 'downward sloping' districts he proposes to include the factor, namely, the "perception of a need for sons to uphold, with violence, a family's power vis-a-vis neighbours". In favour of his basic hypothesis (i e, "families in west-central UP want (or need) more sons than families elsewhere because additional sons enhance their capacity literally to defend themselves or to exercise their power"), the empirical evidence he cites is the negative correlation (-0.72) between the district specific sex ratio and the rale of murders. But such a correlation between the variables mentioned above can also emerge if the districts with low murder rates, and thus less disputes and violence as the author would have us believe, report outmigration of males larger than that in the districts with high-murder rates. The outmigration of males in the districts with less violence would turn the sex ratio in favour of the women. But such a possibility has been ruled out in Oldenburg's discussion as he writes, "it seems unlikely that even if all east UP migrants were to return home, the sex ratio would decline to the level of west-central UP". But if women for reasons such as marriage have outmigrated to a greater extent from the central-west UP as compared to elsewhere in the state, that can also be a reason of low sex-ratio in central-west UP.

Growth and Poverty-The Urban Legend

The Urban Legend Arup Mitra This paper examines if the 'trickle down mechanism' of growth on poverty can be asserted in the urban areas in India. Empirical evidence does not support this view as the role of income growth originating from manufacturing and tertiary sectors in tackling urban poverty is mostly found to be marginal over time. However, as per the results corresponding to cross-section data and time-series-cross-section pooled data industrialisation with rapid employment growth is suggested as a policy variable for reducing urban poverty.

Excess Growth of Tertiary Sector

Excess Growth of Tertiary Sector B B Bhattacharya Arup Mitra IN response to our paper [Bhattacharya and Mitra, 1990] Nagaraj [1991) questions the empirical justification of the proposition concerning the excess growth of the tertiary sector. He presents some empirical evidence to indicate that the tertiary sector already had a high initial share in net domestic product and in subsequent years has grown slower than the secondary sector. He, however, concedes that during the period 1966-67 to 1976-77 the tertiary sector has grown faster than the secondary sector. But for the period as a whole (1950-51 to 1987-88) and especially in the eighties the tertiary sector has grown slower than the secondary sector. Also he argues that the rate of growth of the percentage share of tertiary sector in NDP has been slower than that of secondary sector.

Land Price in Indian Cities-Dimensions and Determinants of Change

below). Underreporting of the land price data is a crucial feature of this source of information as the land sold by the agencies like municipal corporation, registrar of lands, urban development agencies, etc, always transact at reserved price or predetermined price which is subsidised. Therefore, the market price of land is not reflected in the prices reported by these agencies. However, in spite of understatement of prices Table 1 indicates that in most of the capital and metropolitan cities the annual rate of increase (simple average rate of the capital and metropolitan cities the annual rate of increase (simple average rate of growth per annum) in the minimum land prices has been high during the early eighties. Only in Imphal and Panaji, does there seem to be a decline in the minimum price of land during this period. The maximum land prices also recorded mostly a positive annual growth rate Even in the medium towns the rate of change per annum has been high whenever the change has occurred in the positive direction. While emphasising the steep rise in land prices, Gupta [1985] argues that the increase in land prices is not simply due to marked increase in demand for land and rise in the general price level. Concentration of ownership in land raises the land price sharply as the land market becomes purely a seller's market creating artificial scarcity of land. Moreover, the concentration of ownership in land makes land acquisition more expensive as during acquisition the compensation has to be paid according to the market prices as per the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 and the new Urban Land Ceiling Act of 1976 which still relies on the former for the determination of compensation.


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