ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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India and the Geneva Convention Protocols

Protocols A G Noorani IN its Final Declaration of September 1, 1993, the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims earnestly urged all states to become parties inter alia to the two additional Protocols of June 8,1977 to the four Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949. India ratified the Conventions. It steadfastly refuses to ratify the Protocols. 185 states have ratified the Conventions, 148 states have ratified Protocol I relating to protection of victims of international armed conflicts; 140 states have ratified Protocol II relating to protection of victims of 'non- international armed conflicts'. Only 40 have made Declarations under Article 90 of Protocol I.

Glimpses of the Freedom Movement

Glimpses of the Freedom Movement A G Noorani Towards Freedom; Documents on the Movement for Independence in India 1943-1944, edited by Partha Sarathi Gupta; Indian Council for Historical Research and Oxford University Press; Parts I (pp 832), II (pp 833-2206), and III

India and the Torture Convention

By itself, the Convention Against Torture, which India has belatedly agreed to sign, does not amount to much. It is imperative that the text of India's instrument of ratification is made public and public pressure mounted for declarations under articles 20 and 22 of the Convention. Further, legislation is required to provide extra protection against torture as envisaged by the Convention.

Farce of Transparency

For years successive governments of India have flatly refused to permit UN Special Rapporteurs on Extrajudicial Executions and on Torture to enter India. What, then, is the worth of professions of transparency and commitment to human rights?

International Norms on Human Rights

A G Noorani Human Rights in States of Emergency in International Law by Jaime Oraa; Clarendon Press, Oxford,

Custodial Torture

Custodial Torture A G Noorani Against the background of the growing incidence of torture in custody, the 11 ''requirements to be followed in all cases of arrest or detention " listed by the Supreme Court in a recent judgment deserve wide attention. Will parliament at last bestir itself to legislate?

Police and Government

communalism continues to thrive because of identification with one' own community and differentiating oneself from the 'other'. Panikkar therefore calls for creation of neighbourhood committees on the basis of secular issues and secular ideas. The committees could be nodal points of anti- communal consciousness as well as the organisational network to resist the quest of communalism to acquire power. Confrontation with communalism has to be first at the grass roots level. Panikkar is emphatic that secular community will not come into existence automatically through economic development, operation of the market, etc.

Draconian Statute-Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958

Draconian Statute Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 A G Noorani THE United Front government is planning major amendments to the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958. Second only to TADA, no other statute has earned opprobrium for India abroad as this one has. But while TADA has been widely censured not many have bothered to bring home to the people the enormity of the wrong this act truly is. An outstanding exception is Nandita Haksar Unlike TADA, the act applies only to areas which the government chooses to nominate as 'disturbed areas'. Currently, they are the god-forsaken states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Chandigarh, and parts of the north-east. Section 3 empowers the state as well as the central government to declare the whole or any part of the state "to be a disturbed area" if, in the opinion of either, it "is in such a disturbed or dangerous condition that the use of armed forces in aid of the civil power is necessary".

Cyberspace and Citizen s Rights

Modern technology provides easier access to information; but also creates its own threats to citizen's rights.
FOR at least two decades, if not more, civil libertarians in the west have been concerned at the threat to the citizen's right to privacy which data banks on individuals pose, besides other threats created by the march of technology. One finds little such concern in our country though in a good few fields data banks do exist here.

Human Rights Scandinavian Perspective

cannot ask for change of the UF leadership. Congress cannot and should not have withdrawn support. Indrajit Gupta of the CPI said as much in the Lok Sabha. The Congress leaders who spoke in the house one after the other were silent on the reasons for the withdrawal of support. The why of the withdrawal of support remained unanswered. Indrajit Gupta did not get his explanation. Deve Gowda quoting from American newspapers also did not elicit that basic explanation for the Congress's act. Nobody answered that question.

Contested Nation

A G Noorani The Nation, The Stale and Indian Identity edited by Madhushree Dutta, Flavia Agnes and Neera Adarkar; Samya 16, Southern Avenue, Calcutta 700 026; Rs 250.

Journalists Rights

Journalists face risks that an ordinary citizen does not and have rights as members of a profession which others do not Ensuring the freedom of the press in part means protecting the human and professional rights of journalists. 


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