ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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From Poverty Trap to Inclusive Development in LDCs

LDCs are caught in a structural poverty trap due to severe underdevelopment of their productive forces, compounded by an unfavourable international environment. This paper contends that in spite of these odds they have a latent potential for evolving national inclusive, sustainable and sustained development strategies. The sooner they embark on this difficult journey, the greater will be their bargaining power in negotiations with the international community, mostly if they succeed in strengthening their common stance and in mustering the support of a reinvigorated non-aligned movement.

The State and the Social Partners-Towards a Development Compact

The ideologues of the laissez-faire have been quick to interpret the collapse of the centrally planned economics in the Soviet bloc as a proof of the excellence of their model. Yet, this counter-utopia to the collapsed real socialism is also demonstrably bankrupt But far more disturbing is the disorientation of the middle way democratic regimes which are finding increasingly difficult to strike the right balance between public and private, market and planning, short-term contingencies and long-term visions informed by ideals of social justice and harmony with nature.

Searching for New Development Strategies-Challenges of Social Summit

Challenges of Social Summit Ignacy Sachs A widespread social crisis in different farms and with different degrees of intensity is affecting third-world countries, eastern-Europe and the former Soviet Union (today known as countries in transition), and even industrialised countries. The indiscriminate opening of the economies of the South has created the risk of intensifying the process of the dualisation of the economy and society. The countries in transitions face the three-fold challenge of stabilising their economies, creating institutions for the functioning of market-led economies and of undertaking a thorough restructuring of their productive capacities. The most important challenge in the coming years will be that of the renewal of development thinking and a search for new development paradise.

Redefining the Good Society-A North-South Dialogue on Challenges of 21st Century

The complex problems facing humanity demand the evolution of a strategy of sustainable development in which both the north and the south recognise their distinct responsibilities and design synergistic strategies for both groups of countries.

Work, Food and Energy in Urban Ecodevelopment

The urban situation cannot be dissociated from what is going on in the countryside. Part of the urban crisis is due to the stream of immigrants from rural areas where they are unable to earn even the most miserable living. An overall development strategy is clearly a pre-condition to successfully tackling the urban and the rural situation. However, focusing on greater food and energy self-reliance may offer a starting point to design and gradually implement an urban strategy inspired by the ecodevelopment approach.

Environment and Styles of Development

parison which the survey undertakes implies that the recipient of justice in society is a caste and not an individual. This concept might have been justified at a time when all the economic and social criteria of backwardness pointed to the same group. But with the economic change that has been taking place in our country in the last few decades, each caste is getting split into different class groups and the economic and social criteria of backwardness point, many a time, in different directions. The emphasis on statistical averages for whole castes suggests that whenever any particular backward caste shows percentages of literates or of school enrolment which is better than average those for the whole population, it will have to be eliminated from the list of castes getting government protection, it being assumed that the more fortunate individuals in that caste who have benefited from government measures will look after their less fortunate brethren. Even if the government does not follow this policy, such a demand may be expected to be made by other backward castes. The importance given to statistical averages is likely to create jealousies and rancour among different backward castes and might even lead to commu nal trouble. Social scientists cannot absolve themselves of the responsibility of analysing the implications of such measures of social justice and their effect on society. It is to be hoped that the Department of Sociology of Education of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences and the Indian Council of Social Science Research, which have sponsored the national study, approach this task in a more fundamental and systematic manner so that the reports which are to follow this monograph may be useful in evolving more effective policies for helping the backward sections of the community.

Environmental Quality Management and Development Planning

Development Planning Ignacy Sachs There is a section of opinion which holds that environmental quality management is something developing countries need not think about for some time to come, till their GNP has reached high enough levels.

A Welfare State for Poor Countries

Ignacy Sachs Most people explicitly or implicitly accept the simplified theory of development which makes of GNP- per-head the main determinant of economic and social structure. For them, there exists but one broad pattern of industrialisation and development, and, since the developed countries have thought in terms of a welfare state only in the recent past, when their GNP was already a multiple of what it is today in the developing countries, the view is that the developing countries should wait rather longer before they provide social services.

Transfer of Technology and Strategy of Industrialisation

of Industrialisation Ignacy Sachs Technology, i e, knowledge organised for production, has always played a major role in economic activity, whether embodied in manpower, hardware or software. The difference today is that software or knowhow is becoming more a commodity and hence a subject for political economy.

Michael Kalecki

experts', who are clamouring for the bomb and the deli very system, are play- fog games like everyone else, but at least they are working themselves upto some degree of righteous passion. What of the scientific leadership of this country? We need to shake these non-start- ers from their roots. If they cannot perform, they must find other jobs.

Long-Term Planning in Mixed Economies

Planning in mixed underdeveloped economies calls for (1) control of investment through licensing; (2) control of foreign trade and foreign exchange operations, including foreign private investment; and, (3) indirect control of prices by securing balance between demand and supply of food through appropriate agricultural policies.

The Strategy of Foreign Trade Planning

Theoretical studies and empirical evidence both point to the critical importance of foreign trade in the drafting of a strategy for accelerated development.


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