ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Militarism, Development and Democracy

Wars or rather militarism is the major obstacle to development in the contemporary world. The damage done by war far exceeds what is shown by standard statistical indicators. There is a dearth of probing research into the horrendous consequences of militarism. Democracy is one antidote to militarism. But for it to be effective, better public perception of the facts of the political economy of war and militarism is needed.

Victims of Development

on the part of the Bengali middle class to de-class their identity through the praxis of the stage has its thrills, even as the tragedy it triggered is deeply wounding.

Demographic Outcomes, Economic Development and Womens Agency

Demographic Outcomes, Economic Development and Women's Agency INDIA is a country of striking demographic diversity. Even broad comparisons between different states within the country bring out enormous variations in basic demographic indicators. At one end of the scale, Kerala has demographic features that are more typical of a middle-income country than of a poor developing economy, including a life expectancy at birth of 72 years, an infant mortality of only 17 per 1,000 live births, a total fertility rate below the replacement level (1.8 in 1991), and a female- male ratio well above unity (1.04 in 1991). At the other end, the large north Indian states find themselves in the same league as the least developed countries of the world in terms of the same indicators. In Uttar Pradesh, for instance, the infant mortality rate is six times as high as in Kerala, the total fertility rate is as high as 5.1, and the female-male ratio (879 in 1991) is lower than that of any country in the world.1 India is also a country of rapid demographic change. As in many other developing countries, mortality rates in fndia have significantly declined in recent decades, e g, the infant mortality rate has been reduced by about 50 per cent since 1961. The same period has seen a sustained decline in fertility, particularly in the south Indian states (in Tamil Nadu, for instance, the total fertility rate declined from 3.5 to 2.2 during the 1980s). There have also been significant changes in the relative survival chances of men and women.2 Apart from being of much interest in themselves, these inter-regional and intertemporal variations provide useful opportunities to study the determinants of demographic outcomes in India. This paper is an attempt to examine some of the relevant relationships based on a cross-section analysis of district-level data for 1981. A more detailed presentation and discussion of this analysis can be found in Guio (1994) and Murthi, Guio and Dreze (1995).' The reference year for this analysis is 1981. For that year, a fair amount of district- level information is available from the 1981 Census and related sources. Table 1 a presents a list of the variables used along with their definitions. The relevant information is available for 296 districts, all located in 14 of India's 15 largest states (these 14 states had a total of 326 districts in 1981, and accounted for 94 per cent of the total population of India). The sample averages of the variables used in the analysis are presentedinTablela,whilethestateaverages are in Table lb.

Chomsky in India-An Interview

An Interview Jean Dreze During his visit to India, Noam Chomsky, speaking on a wide range of subjects from democracy and human rights to the role of intellectuals in society, captivated his audiences with his lucid challenge of accepted political analyses, his commitment to social equality and individual freedom, the breadth of his scholarship and the engaging style of his lectures.

Literacy in India and China

Literacy in India and China Jean Dreze Jackie Loh This paper examines recent census-based evidence on literacy achievements in China and India. China is found to he far ahead of India in the field of basic education. In particular, China is close to the elimination of illiteracy in the younger age groups, while India is nowhere near achieving that goal Educational disparities follow similar patterns in both countries, but tend to be sharper in India. China's lead in basic education was established during the pre-reform period, based on a strong commitment to the widespread and equitable provision of schooling facilities at an early stage of development. This contrast in educational achievements in China and India is crucial in assessing their respective development experiences and reform programmes.

Recent Research on Widows in India-Workshop and Conference Report

The concerns of widows cannot be dissociated from those of other single women, or indeed from those of women in general. Widows do experience special difficulties and deprivations, connected, inter alia, with the restrictions that are imposed on their lifestyle and the persistence of negative social attitudes towards them.

Nutrition and Health in Rural India

Nutrition and Health in Rural India THIS book brings together the results of two recent empirical studies of nutrition and health in rural India. The two studies are respectively based on (1) a detailed survey of Devarishikuppam panchayat in North Arcot district (Tamil Nadu), carried out in 1984-85 and covering a little over 600 households, and (2) a survey of 112 children under the age of five, and their families, in four tribal hamlets of Warangal district (Andhra Pradesh). The first study focuses primarily on adult health and nutrition, the second on child nutrition. Throughout the book, a valuable and scholarly effort is made to relate these two case studies to recent debates about nutrition and health in the developing world, as well as to other empirical studies.

Widows and Health in Rural North India

Marty, Chen Jean Dreze The north Indian widow tends to be a highly marginalised person. She typically receives very little support from persons other than her children, and even when she lives with one or several of her adult sons she remains highly vulnerable to neglect. Further, her ability to engage in income-earning activities of her own is severely restricted, partly due to various patriarchal norms such as patrilineal inheritance and the division of labour by gender. The consequences of this social and economic marginalisation are manifest in poor health and high mortality levels.

War, Sanctions and Human-Well-Being in Iraq

the short-term debt can be paid off but what of the longer-term debt climbing at compound interest rates? Maxwell's tragedy put simply is that which besets hundreds of corporations

Poverty in India and the IRDP Delusion

This paper presents some fresh evidence on the performance of the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and, in the light of this evidence and of the findings of earlier studies, provides an assessment of the functioning of IRDP. The author's concern is not primarily with the nitty-gritty of the implementation of the programme, but with what are the central questions about IRDP: does this programme reach the poor and to what extent does it enhance their living conditions? The last section of the paper briefly discusses alternative avenues of action.


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