ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by K SrinivasanSubscribe to K Srinivasan

Quality of Data in NFHS-4 Compared to Earlier Rounds

As the quality of data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey is likely to be affected both by the overstretching of the number of questions administered as well as the increased involvement of commercial agencies for data collection, rethinking both these aspects of survey management is the need of the hour.


The Golden Cage

The form and nature of marriage and family life have changed over the past few decades in Western societies and in East Asia, but they have taken different pathways. Reproduction is becoming delinked from marriage in the West, while in East Asia remaining single has become more of a norm. Looking at how the various factors operating in these societies impinge on marriages in India, this paper finds that while development has contributed to a significant rise in age at marriage, it has not altered the ultimate proportion of the population getting married by 0-34. These figures are in stark contrast to what is observed in the West and Japan. Deeply rooted in religion and caste, and with marital breakdown facing punishing social and economic costs, the institution of marriage is strong in India and unlikely to show signs of a breakdown in the near future.

Family Welfare Programme in India: Expenditure vs Performance

Since the launch of the reproductive and child health policy regime in 1998-99, there has been a massive rise in government expenditure on family welfare programmes in India. This paper makes a systematic effort to assess the performance of the family welfare programmes vis-à-vis the trends in expenditure. The trends in key performance indicators for India and selected states reveal that progress has been slow and limited in the post-rch policy regime. Child immunisation coverage has decelerated, and the increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate and institutional delivery coverage have stalled. Consequently, the pace of reduction in the total fertility rate and infant mortality rate has slowed. Overall, the progress in key programme indicators is found to be incommensurate with rising expenditure.

Household Deprivation and Its Linkages with Reproductive Health Utilisation

The household deprivation scores, based on the availability of some basic amenities to a household and the presence of a literate adult member, have been applied to data sets of the three National Family Health Surveys to study the trends in deprivation levels over 1992-2006 and the correlates of selected reproductive and child heath parameters with household deprivation levels. It is found that the proportion of households classified as "deprived" on the basis of the hds has recorded a secular declining trend over this period and that the quantum of decline in the proportions of the deprived is strongly associated with improvements in reproductive and child health parameters. Analysis of the data on malnourishment of children reveals that the availability of some basic amenities at the household level makes a significant contribution to children's growth and prevention of malnutrition.

P N Mari Bhat (1951-2007)

P N Mari Bhat, senior professor and director of the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, passed away suddenly following a massive cardiac arrest on July 30, 2007. He was 56 years old. Mari, as he was fondly called by his friends and colleagues, will be greatly missed.

Reviewing Reproductive and Child Health Programmes in India

Since the early 1990s, "decentralisation" and "integration" seem to be the buzz words underlying the implementation of various social development programmes in India, especially the reproductive and child health programme. Analysis reveals that the state-level effects of various RCH services are significantly higher than those at the district level. The pace of annual progress after 1998 in many RCH indicators is slower than before and a few indicators (e g, child-immunisation) have worsened, despite the expenditure on the programme being doubled. Decentralisation and integration of basic healthcare services may not be effective unless monitored centrally and backed by full time health (medical/paramedical) professionals at the delivery level.

Deprivation of Basic Amenities by Caste and Religion

In a modern market-oriented economy, possession of basic social and physical necessities of life can be considered the basis of a dividing line of different levels of deprivation. This paper, by using consecutive NFHS data (1992 and 1999), attempts to estimate levels of deprivation based on possessions at the household level of some basic amenities of life. It examines changes in levels of deprivation, categorised as 'abject deprivation', 'moderate deprivation', 'just above deprivation' and 'well above deprivation' across Indian states and also analyses changes in terms of caste and religion.

Recency of Birth as Marker of Future Fertility

The persistence of high growth rates of the population in a number of states is calling to question the wisdom and feasibility of integrating family planning programmes in a larger reproductive health package as recommended in the National Population Policy 2000. There is an apparent inconsistency between the needs of the state governments to regulate population growth and fertility levels as part of developmental strategies and the requirements for implementation of family planning programmes as a part of a larger reproductive health package. In this article an attempt is made to reconcile this inconsistency through a birth-based approach to contraception which is feasible, humane and effective in terms of its fertility impact. The data from NFHS-2 are used to empirically validate the approach.

Trends in Sex Ratio

Revisit Needed K SRINIVASAN Krishnaji in a recent article (EPW, April 1, 2000) has argued that the declines in the sex ratios of the population of the country between 1981 and 1991 Censuses from 934 to 927 (females per 1,000 population) can be largely attributed to increased female foeticide and to discriminatory practices in society which contribute to higher mortality for women. He rules out the possibility of larger underenumeration of women in the 1991 Census quoting the studies by Ashok Mitra and Pravin Visaria based on the 1961 and 1971 Censuses which are not relevant for the analysis of the situation in the 1981 and 1991 Censuses. He has criticised my earlier hypothesis (1994) that there have been substantial omission of women in the country as a whole in the 1991 Census which was based on unacceptably poor sex ratios observed in some of the districts in the country which were politically more tense before the 1991 Census. I also argued that very low ratios (around 800 in some districts) could not have come about because of increased female foeticide, differential mortality or migration.

Economic and Caste Criteria in Definition of Backwardness

While the NFHS was conducted with the primary objective of collecting data on reproductive status, it has generated considerable data on caste and economic conditions. An analysis of this data set shows that there are wide differentials in the economic conditions of the socially backward castes and classes. This raises vital questions on the role and relevance of caste-based privileges.

Sex Ratios What They Hide and What-They Reveal

They Reveal K Srinivasan The widespread large decline in the sex ratios in the country in the last decade in the context of an increasing trend in female life expectancy and such other factors raises the question of whether there was large scale under-enumeration of females in the 1991 Census.

Impact of Population on Selected Social and-Economic Sectors

Economic Sectors K Srinivasan Sumati, Kulkarni S Parasuraman This paper attempts to study the social and economic implications of alternative trends in population growth in India up to the year 2021 from a macro-economic-demographic point of view.


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