ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Krishna KumarSubscribe to Krishna Kumar

NARMADA-State and the People-Styles of Suppression and Resistance

NARMADA State and the People Styles of Suppression and Resistance Krishna Kumar FOUR Narmada-related incidents which took place in August deserve a close look and interpretation. Even the broad details pertaining to these incidents were ignored in many quarters of the media, and therefore require some narration. A distinct sense of boredom has surfaced in the media in relation to Narmada affairs, and indeed to a certain extent, in relation to all resistance movements concerned with ecological problems. The boredom is undoubtedly an outcome of the emerging consensus among owners of industry and the media, that popular ecological awareness is detrimental to speedy industrial growth. Killing of news relating to people's opposition to destructive development projects or legal battles waged as part of such opposition has become routine. A third party to join this consensus among industry and media owners are political leaders. They were never too keen on supporting ecological struggles, except when an immediate political advantage was at stake. Even this variety of interest has dwindled in high-level political circles since the advent of World Bank-directed economic reforms.

Agricultural Modernisation and Education-Contours of a Point of Departure

Contours of a Point of Departure Krishna Kumar The English-speaking ruling elites of the 1960s were keen to propagate the US-inspired strategy of agricultural modernisation based on modern technologies. This was reflected in the Kothari Commission report on education, which sidelined the concept of basic education in favour of general elementary education for rural children intended to inculcate a scientific outlook.

Learning and Money-Children as Pawns in Dependency Game

Learning and Money Children as Pawns in Dependency Game Krishna Kumar DEPENDENCE on foreign resources for expansion and improvement of primary education, and privatisation of higher education are two salient features of the emerging educational policy. Considering that neither has systemic precedence, together they can be said to form the real and 'new' educational policy replacing the much- publicised National Policy document of 1986. It is not as if 1986 was too early to foreshadow the impending. On the contrary, plans for large-scale induction of foreign resources - both funds and expertise were already afloat and international consultants knew what was cooking in the oven of development business. In retrospect it looks as if it was all a coincidence, but such a view can only be superficial though it has the merit of being consolatory. As far as India is concerned, it is clear that in the years during which the Jomtien conference (March 1990) on 'Education for All' (EFA) was being planned, details of the social safety network were also being worked out to be revealed to the innocent after the announcement of the structural adjustment programme (SAP). Jomtien is now referred to as a turning point at which the attention of the wealthy nation- states was forced upon the plight of the poor, especially the latter's children. No one now needs to be told that Jomtien was merely the venue of a public ceremony at which the poor were introduced into the nasty new world of post-cold war capitalism. For India, Jomtien was the beginning of a structurally adjusted political economy of education. It is hardly surprising that policy documents of the 90s mention Jomtien rather than the Indian Constitution as the origin of the concept of universal schooling. To expect that Gokhale or Tagore might have formed relevant references is to be too arcane and hopelessly 'swadeshi' which only the RSS can afford to be.

Importance of the Family

system. Further, in such a process, imported technologies are not significantly adapted, modified and integrated into a system of domestic technological activity. Imported technology thus largely substitutes for local technological development rather than largely supporting or complementing it. The process is admittedly complex and, if mathematically modelled, one may have to use the techniques of system dynamics and control theory.

Battle against Their Own Minds-Notes on Literate Kerala

The idea that illiterates are living in a dark age because of their illiteracy underlies the national literacy programme, yielding the stereotypes of the illiterate as submerged in a sea of darkness and the literate as bathing in the light of every kind of awareness. The human goals of education are sacrificed fully when the existing stratification of society is reified thus by a baseless, indeed irrational, use of knowledge to classify people.

Market Economy and Mass Literacy-Revisiting Innis s Economics of Communication

Market Economy and Mass Literacy Revisiting Innis's Economics of Communication Krishna Kumar From the perspective of the conceptuat frame work developed by Harold A Innis, the pursuit of mass literacy in the context of the so-called 'globalisation' of the Indian economy calls for analysis at a number of levels. The advantages that a literate population offers to the growth of a market economy form a central theme of this paper. At a different level the discussion covers the implications of becoming literate in terms of what is there to read\ In addition to this generalised question, the discussion also looks at the specific problems of survival and development that the illiterates and neotiterates face in the emerging political economy.

MADHYA PRADESH-Education Programme under Attack

Education Programme under Attack Krishna Kumar Early last month two ongoing programmes of Eklavya, a voluntary institution which has pioneered innovative ideas in education and has been working within the state education system in Madhya Pradesh earned the displeasure of the BJP state government and were ordered to be closed down. This is an indicator of the limits of non-political efforts to withstand the feudal-trading-middle class combine which governs the state.

Banning Child Labour

make for free citizens in a true sense. The Indian state has to remove these anomalies in civil society. It has to take steps to Banning Child Labour Krishna Kumar The Supreme Court's order banning child labour in 'beedi' manufacturing is a modest achievement which will need sustained vigilance and struggle if it is not to fizzle out.

EDUCATION-Slowing Down

EDUCATION Slowing Down Krishna Kumar The report of the Department of Education for 1989-90 shows that what little energy had gathered in the bureaucratic machinery of education in the wake of the 1986 education policy had run

Quest for Self-Identity-Cultural Consciousness and Education in Hindi Region, 1880-1950

Quest for Self-Identity Cultural Consciousness and Education in Hindi Region, 1880-1950 Krishna Kumar This study of the Hindi litterati's search for cultural identity and expression centres on the development of Hindi journalism, Hindi literacy and education at the primary and advanced levels and the role of text books syllabi and socio-cuitural movements in remoulding the language by advancing the cause of Sanskritisation and promoting the Devnagri script and in the process renouncing the Urdu-Persian heritage.

Secularism Its Politics and Pedagogy

Secularism: Its Politics and Pedagogy Krishna Kumar The failure of secularism in India is hardly the failure of an ideology. It is essentially the failure of a ruling class that used secular ideals as means of seeking legitimacy but which largely inored the social tasks associated with the development of a secular society.

Colonial Citizen as an Educational Ideal

Krishna Kumar The customary statement that colonial education was 'aimed' at producing clerks is both theoretically feeble and historically untenable. We need a more adequate model capable of accommodating the contradictions that were inherent in the vision of colonial education as well as those that became manifest in its consequences. This paper attempts to use the concept of an educational ideal to identify an organising principle in Indian colonial education in the nineteenth century WE owe the concept of an educational ideal as a means of historical inquiry to Mannheim. He defined it as "a residue of attitudes, principles and forms of behaviour" which shape educational aims and arrangements in a period of history.' The concept enabled him to debunk the notion


Back to Top