ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Maharashtras Agricultural Development-A Blueprint

A Blueprint S Mahendra Dev B L Mungekar This paper describes the agricultural scenario in Maharashtra and outlines the major interventions required to increase agricultural production in the state. The blueprint includes improved irrigation and water and soil conservation; reduction in subsidies; an increase in the role of the private sector, especially in horticulture and food processing; and greater concentration on agricultural research and extension.

Alleviating Poverty-Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme

Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme S Mahendra Dev In spite of the limitations in its design and implementation the EGS has made positive impact on the levels of living of the rural poor in Maharashtra. However, the EGS alone cannot remove the poverty in rural areas of the state. And any replication of the scheme in other states should involve prior establishment of decentralised district planning and implementing body, and assurance of adequate funds through additional taxation.

Economic Reforms and the Rural Poor

Economic Reforms and the Rural Poor S Mahendra Dev BOTH the critics and supporters of the economic reform now agree that the poverty has increased during the first 18 months (July 1991 to December 1992) of the reform period. They disagree, however, on the factors responsible for the increase in poverty, particularly rural poverty.

Is PDS Urban Biased and Pro-Rich-An Evaluation

Is PDS Urban Biased and Pro-Rich?
An Evaluation S Mahendra Dev M H Suryanarayana The performance of the public distribution system in India has come in for severe criticism on the grounds that it is urban biased and that it benefits by and large the middle and upper income groups in the urban areas. This study attempts to evaluate the validity of these criticisms using the latest available NSS data on utilisation of the public distribution system. The study concludes that the debate is no longer one of urban versus rural in most of the states but whether the PDS serves the purpose of protecting the vulnerable sections of society.

Constraints on Agricultural Productivity-A District Level Analysis

A District Level Analysis S Mahendra Dev This paper examines the characteristics of 100 low yield districts and some non-low yield districts to bring out the constraints on agricultural productivity in the 100 low yield districts. Section II of the paper provides a methodology for analysing the constraints on low yield districts. Data base and definitions of the variables are given in section III, while section IV describes the location and significance of the low yield districts. Section Vanalyses the constraints on agricultural productivity in the 100 low yield and some non-low yield districts and discusses the role of fertilisers and fixed capital in raising agricultural productivity The last section presents the summary and conclusions.

Non-Agricultural Employment in Rural India-Evidence at a Disaggregate Level

Evidence at a Disaggregate Level S Mahendra Dev This paper furnishes evidence on some dimensions of rural non-agricultural employment, specifically the changes in the distribution of workforce in agriculture and non-agriculture at the all-India level and in Kerala and Bihar, the factors determining inter-regional variations in the share of non-agricultural employment, estimates on unemployment and poverty for agricultural and non-agricultural households and analyses projections of rural non-agricultural workforce in the year 2001.

Agricultural Development at State and District Levels

out that there are substantial differences between the British and the Indian contexts which need to be recognised, but concedes that the British experience is likely to be more relevant to us than that of other countries. One can readily agree with the conclusions of this useful paper. His central contribution to the book, namely, the paper entitled 'Privatisation of Public Enterprises: Scope and Limits' recognises the need for examining the case for privatisation, as also the limits to privatisation, and deals briefly with some of the points which can be made against privatisation. However, this effort at objectivity seems somewhat half-hearted. Indeed, the paper explicitly admits that "there is a bias in this approach in favour of private ownership in the context of technical efficiency". The main thrust of the paper is to explore the scope for privatisation in certain sectors. The illustrative framework provided in the statement at the end of the paper lists a number of public enterprises in various sectors which could be considered for privatisation. For instance, it indicates that the refining units of the public sector oil companies could be carved out as independent units and privatised; that Indian Petrochemicals Corporation could be transferred by sale; and that each generating unit of National Thermal Power Corporation could be a separate entity for transfer. It is perhaps not Reddy's intention actually to advocate the privatisation of these units: he is probably merely indicating possibilities. However, can one responsibly put forward such ideas without entering into a discussion of the policy issues involved? The IPCL, Indian Oil Corporation and NTPC have all been successful with reference to both physical and financial indicators and one is not aware of any major customer dissatisfaction with IPCL or IOC; and all these operate in very important sectors. On what grounds should one consider their privatisation? Similarly, we have the following on the life insurance sector: "Split and transfer by sale of equity, joint venture, etc Split into units for yardstick competition." But should we not first go into the basic question of why life insurance was nationalised, and whether a change in the policy is now called for? Red- dy says somewhere that his paper goes into the question of "why privatisation", but the perfunctory remarks on "scoped and "need" are hardly adequate.

Prospects of Enhancing Labour Productivity in Indian Agriculture

in Indian Agriculture S Mahendra Dev What are the prospects of increasing the productivity of labour in Indian agriculture? The author examines the two constituent components of labour productivity, namely yield and the land-person ratio, at a disaggregated level He takes a look at the impact of the demographic scenario on the land-person ratio and provides an analysis of the constraints on increasing yields based on district level data and concludes with some brief comments on the policy options that emerge.

Economic Transformation of Rural Punjab

Economic Transformation of Rural Punjab S Mahendra Dev The State and Rural Economic Transformation: The Case of Punjab, 1950-85 by G K Chadha; Sage Publications, 1986; pp 369, Rs 195.

Net Domestic Product per Worker in Indian Agriculture

increasing among rural women. As to footwear, only 40 per cent of households have reported any net increase at all; and that increase amounts to no more than 0.7 (pair of) rubber shoes per household. As to other kinds of shoes, the incidence of increase is even further less The habit of using footwear seems not to be so common in the rural areas and it has not increased much (vide Table 7) Further, those who use footwear are mostly the adult male members of the households, and the majority of women and children do not Notes [The field work for the resurvey was done by H N Kar, R P Datta, P B Ghosh, J L Chakra- borty, S R Mukherjee and S Bhattacharya Sujata Ganguly, Kanika Ghosal, Sanat Maiti, Amar Sen, Ajoy Bose, R L Banerjee, N Chat- tcrjee, B Ghosh and P Roy helped in scrutiny and analysis of statistical data The authors are thankful to all these workers for then co-operation. ] 1 About the sample design and other details regarding the survey on which the paper is based, see our earlier paper' 'Changes in Level of Living in Rural West Bengal Housing Conditions', Economic and Political Weekly, Vol XXII, Nos 36 and 37, September

Growth of Labour Productivity in Indian Agriculture-Regional Dimensions

in Indian Agriculture Regional Dimensions S Mahendra Dev This paper examines the growth of labour productivity in agriculture during the period between the triennia 1962-65 and 1975-78 at the level of all-India and for 56 agro-climatic regions and the contributions of yield, cropping intensity and land-labour ratio to the increase/decrease of labour productivity in each of these agro- climatic regions. Finally, the author discusses the association between the level of labour productivity in agriculture and rural poverty.

Direction of Change in Performance of All Crops in Indian Agriculture in Late 1970s-A Look at the Level of Districts and Agro-Climatic Regions

in Indian Agriculture in Late 1970s A Look at the Level of Districts and Agro-Climatic Regions S Mahendra Dev One of the criticisms against the new strategy of agricultural development, which is identified with HYV technology, is that it has widened regional disparities in agricultural performance. This paper examines whether such disparities have in fact widened. Changes in regional disparities for all crops in terms of output per area and output per capita (to take account of demographic pressures) and the interconnections between the two measures are examined across agro-climatic regions in late 1970s as compared to early 1970s and 1960s. Also examined ore differences in the levels of output per area and output per capita across different growth classes.


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