ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Sanjit SarkarSubscribe to Sanjit Sarkar

Open Defecation in India

Universal access to safe sanitation by reducing subnational inequality is a huge challenge for a country like India. The union government launched the Swachh Bharat Mission in 2014, intending to end the practice of open defecation by 2019. The article examines the current state and temporal changes in OD across subnational levels using data from the National Family Health Surveys 4 (2015–16) and 5 (2019–21). While the practice has decreased significantly, from 38.88% of households in 2015–16 to 19.36% in 2019–21, it remains relatively higher in central and eastern Indian states. The findings suggest further modification of the SBM project’s implementation strategies in these states.

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