ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Gendered Labour in India

The processes of economic restructuring during the last two decades have witnessed a massive spurt of opportunities in the labour market which have, withholding the periodic shifts, facilitated women's workforce participation. Although the relationship between economic restructuring and occupational/ industrial diversities is fraught with ambiguities, it may generally be hypothesised that such enhanced openings would contribute towards the reduction in the often observed gendered segregation of labour in industries. Based on the unit level National Sample Survey Office data for various rounds, this study attempts to identify the industries in which women have stereotypically been bunched, and traces whether any changes have come about therein. The study also examines the role of education in diversification of industries in terms of men-women workforce composition. Even as the horizon of the labour market widens, it has not been able to provide women with expanded economic spaces.

Women in India's New Generation Jobs

Has increased access to employment opportunities, financial independence and educational attainments enabled women in urban India to exercise their freedom and agency? An examination of the information technology and business process outsourcing sectors shows that despite the glamour and an invoked sense of articulate modernity, women here continue to operate within a narrow paradigm. Its limits are constituted by gendered constructs that persist to encode women’s primary place within domesticity even as the vocabulary undergoes some cosmetic changes.

The Material and the Symbolic

Capital has an overarching logic of accumulation in general and yet the economic rationale, intercepted by national and local configurations of social power, makes capital unfold differentially in different spaces. The labour market provides an ideal site to interrogate such processes. In India, regional specificities are stark when it comes to the presence of women workers in the public domain, which get significantly obliterated if they are in home-based work. This is because home-based work hinges upon responsibilities of social reproduction and more importantly upon all-pervasive social norms that continue to embed women in traditional constructs of domesticity. It can be argued that in a situation where the market has to become extremely competitive and cost effective, the concept of flexible and cheap labour – the bandwagon of expanding capital – is best articulated through work that is carried out at homes for it can gel comfortably well, in sync with social codes, that assign women to the confines of home even if their status is that of workers.

Gendered Mobility: Women Migrants and Work in Urban India

This article focuses on the changing work profile of migrant women and the avenues available to them. The central question posed is whether women's posturban continuation in the workforce as well as fresh work status destabilises any of the established stereotypical gendered codes woven around familial and domestic responsibilities and if caste, class and accessibility to human resources (education in particular) intersect with such codes.

Dispensing with Daughters: Technology, Society, Economy in North India

A study of the micro-level experiences of families in five districts, one each in five states, some of them with the lowest child sex ratios in the country, seeks to explain the complex causes behind the declining ratios by looking at gender and family strategies, shaped by social processes in the urban and rural areas.

Contextualising Inter-, Intra-religious and Gendered Literacy and

Indian Muslims as a whole lag behind other religious communities in terms of educational attainment. This paper seeks to place Muslim literacy and education as relational and its locatedness in a larger spatial context in order to propose that there can be no one unilinear process in conceptualising religious differences in matters of literacy and education, which might be produced variously through individuals and the larger structures of which individuals are a part.

Globalisation and Expanding Markets for Cut-Flowers: Who Benefits?

Globalisation and macroeconomic reforms have induced a number of discernible changes in Indian agriculture, including a greater policy emphasis on high value crop diversification. It has been argued that moving away from a cropping pattern oriented towards foodgrain production would enable land-poor farmers to sustain and improve their livelihoods. This paper examines issues related to high value diversification in agriculture by taking floriculture as a case study and finds that though the profitability of cut-flowers is substantially higher than that of the traditional crops, the participation of the smaller farmers in flower cultivation is lower compared to most of the other farm-size categories, primarily because of weak linkages with the market. The results indicate that risk aversion is an important impediment to crop-diversification, particularly for the land-poor category of farmers. Schemes to diversify crops are likely to face serious constraints unless resource-related and institutional barriers like access to markets are overcome.

Negotiating with Patriarchy

NGO experiences show that it is possible to circumvent patriarchal structures to get men interested in reproductive health issues by following several pathways including a focus on converging interests, using existing constructs of masculinity, creating social support for new constructs and in several situations just by dealing with ignorance and misinforma

Decline in Sex Ratio Alternative Explanation Re-Examined

Decline in Sex Ratio: Alternative Explanation Re-Examined Saraswati Raju Mahendra K Premi AN alternative viewpoint on declining sex ratio (SR) by Rajan, Mishra and Navaneetham (December 21, 1991) in response to an earlier write-up by Kundu and Sahu on the same theme (October 12, 1991) by itself is no reason to attempt this note. One of the objectives of academic research is to provoke discussion on matters of importance and the declining sex ratio is one such concern. However, the trio,have not only sorely missed some of the points made by Kundu and Sahu, a certain misintcrprcta tion of their arguments at places is rather disconcerting.

Gender and Deprivation-A Theme Revisited with a Geographical Perspective

A Theme Revisited with a Geographical Perspective Saraswati Raju The choice of gender-specificity as a first order explanatory framework implicit in research where women are studied as a category places gender studies in a theoretical vacuum. This approach ignores social class formations which may cut across gender whereby gross deprivation may in fact exist for both sexes. Thus women cannot be viewed as a homogeneous group nor can one assume gender-based discrimination to prevail An alternative model proposed makes it possible to analyse gender issues within the theoretical premises of social class formations and their exploitative relations.

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