ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Sharit BhowmikSubscribe to Sharit Bhowmik

Labour Costs and Productivity

Raising the Global Floor: Dismantling the Myth That We Can't Afford Good Working Conditions for Everyone by Jody Heymann and Alison Earle (Stanford : An imprint of Stanford University Press), California (USA), 2010; pp xiii+240,$ 35.

Wages and Ethnic Conflicts in Bengal's Tea Industry

The recent wage agreement for tea labour in Darjeeling, that raised the daily wage to Rs 100 has increased ethnic tension among the workers of Nepali origin and the adivasis in the tea districts. This article looks at the ethnic tensions fostered by the separate Gorkhaland agitation among the tea workers and how it has affected the wage negotiations.

Legal Protection for Street Vendors

The Supreme Court has directed the government to pass the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2009 by 30 June 2011. However, the bill does not include significant clauses of the National Policy for Urban Street Vendors as recommended by the National Commission on Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector. If passed in its present form, it will constitute a mockery of street vendors' rights. If the government is serious about protecting the livelihoods of the urban working poor, it must incorporate not only the clauses of the national policy but also the progressive steps taken in this area by the governments of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Chhattisgarh.

Politics of Tea in the Dooars

The documentary film Rally of Death by Manasi, captures the plight of the workers of the closed tea estates in the Dooars in West Bengal and exposes the wily politics of tea.

Rural Women in Soviet Union

in these areas. That task remains to be undertaken.
Similarly, Perrings defines possession rigorously. "The commitment of positively valued resources to the exaction of environ- mental resources implies that the latter are possessed and so endowed with value. Proprietary rights in a process are, by contrast, necessary but not sufficient to ensure that the outputs of that process are positively valued... The possession of a resource implies that it is incorporated in a particular property and, hence, value system..." He analyses the multiplicity of value systems that have existed historically by drawing upon anthropological literature. The results of this analysis will be of value to development economists and policymakers. It would be interesting to compare and contrast Perrings' results in, say, the context of urban informal markets, as analysed by, for example, N Vijay Jaganathan in Informal Markers in Developing Countries, (OUP, 1987).

Plantation Labour in North-East India

remedial measures.
This investigative and advisory process can be endless. The commission would recommend the setting up of working groups which in turn would advise the appointment of task forces who would suggest the setting up of action groups to be followed by expert groups and later by panels. Years ago, a seasoned civil servant had remarked that "when government does not want to commit something, it 'committees' it".

TEA-Gift for Private Sector

TEA Gift for Private Sector Sharit Bhowmik THE Tea Board has recently released its Draft Seventh Five-Year Plan for the Tea Industry (1985-86 to 1989-90). The plan is quite impressive in terms of outlay, which is three times higher than the outlay in the previous plan. The Sixth Plan (1980-81 to 1984- 35) had an outlay of Rs 300 crore, whereas this plan has an outlay of Rs 900 crore. The Tea Board's contribution is to be Rs 130 crore, and the industry is to generate Rs 300 crore, that is, 33 per cent of the total outlay. The rest will be borne by the financial institutions such as NABARD, IDBI, commercial banks and the State Financial Corporations. By the end of the plan period, production is expected to incease from 625.55 million kg estimated for 1984-85 to 766 million kg in

POPULATION- Determinants and Consequences of Migration

April 7, 1984 POPULATION Determinants and Consequences of Migration Sharit Bhowmik MIGRATION has been regarded as the step-child of demography. Demographers have largely concentrated on measurement of the volume of migration neglecting its economic and social consequences. Even our population policy does not include migration in its per- view. In order to encourage population scientists to take a greater interest in this neglected field of demography, the Indian Association for the Study of Population (IASP), which is the only association of demographers in the- country, organised a plenary .session on Determinants and Consequences of Internal and International Migration :an its annual conference at Jaipur on December 22-26 1983. The session was chaired by P B Desai and B K Roy Burman was the discussant. Six papers were presented, five of which dealt with the effects of migration in specific areas and one paper dealt with general migration trends in India.

TEA- Labour s Gains Lost

TEA Labour's Gains Lost Sharit Bhowmik ON July 18, under a three-year wage agreement, the tea garden workers of West Bengal have been granted what press reports have called a 'wage increase'. By the new agreement, the state's 250,000 tea siarden workers (213,000 of whom are permanent) will get increments of 75 paise every year; child workers (aged between 14-16 years) will get three annual increments of 38 paise. At present the daily wages are Rs 9 in Dooars (Jalpaiguri district), Rs 8-94 in. Terai, and Rs 8 62 in Dar- jeeling Hills (both in Darjeeling district). Thus the now promised annual increment hardly carries the wage level lo any civilised mark, if one were to consider the cost of living:. Moreover, the tripartite agreement was signed one year after the earlier agreement expired. The enhanced wages will thus be given from April 1983, and not from July 1982 when the earlier agreement expired

LABOUR-Wages of Tea Garden Workers in West Bengal

LABOUR Wages of Tea Garden Workers in West Bengal Sharit Bhowmik ON June 30 this year, the three-year wage agreement for tea plantation workers in West Bengal came to an end. Though nearly three months have passed, none of the major union's have found it worthwhile to demand a wage revision. It is now quite clear that the unions are not interested in pressing the employers for better wages. The Coordination Committee of Tea Plantation Workers (an apex body comprising all major unions such as ClTU, INTUC, UTUC, HMS, etc) had called a meeting on July 10 to discuss this issue but no decision could be taken due to lack of quorum. Finally, on August 25 a meeting was held and the constituents came to a vague understanding that the demand should now be made for a need-based minimum wage. They have yet to decide what this wage will be in cash terms and the form of agitation to achieve it.

Tribal Development in Orissa

been cheaper to have a cistern providing water from the hill streams (p 34).
The author gives a detailed analysis of the financial position and income and expenditure pattern of the gram pan- chayats in these two blocks. In Narayan- patna the panchayats' income was miserably low and so were the grants from the government for development because "most of the schemes were executed directly by the authorities of the block" and only "a few were entrusted to the panchayats for execution" (p 22). This defeats the very purpose of local self-government. On the other hand, Runiban, being a special multipurpose tribal block, received more liberal grants. According to the author, the spread of Panchayati Raj in Ruruban has helped in weakening the political power of the feudal chiefs and the caste Hindus. It has made the tribals politically and socially conscious and has encouraged them to participate in political and social activities (p 77). Road development has also helped in increasing political and economic activity among the tribals of Ruruban, where school attendance has also increased significantly (p 95). On the other hand, Narayanpatna continues to experience a political vacuum "mainly because of the inaccessibility of these areas" (p 110).

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