ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by T L SankarSubscribe to T L Sankar

Electricity Act 2003

The provisions of the Electricity Act 2003 are intended to introduce competition in every link of the power supply chain in order to enhance efficiency and reduce costs. However, certain controversial provisions in the Act need to be clarified. For instance, the provisions on open access, surcharges and cross-subsidies could lead to many interpretations and cause legal tangles. Regulatory commissions must also adopt uniform procedures for tariff-fixing so that uncertainty is minimised and investments are encouraged. Simple remedies, by means of clarifications and norm-fixing are required, some of which are offered in this paper.

Power Sector: Rise, Fall and Reform

From being the only state electricity board in the country in the eighties to steadily maintain a profitable profile over a period of a decade, the Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board (APSEB) had by 2000 slid to the last position among SEBs in financial management. It has recorded the highest losses among all SEBs in the last three years. This paper attempts to examine how this horrendous deterioration happened and what factors contributed to it. To study this the history of the electricity sector in the state has been periodised into three periods: Rise (1970-90), Fall (1990-96) and Reform (1996-2000).

Towards a People's Plan for Power Sector Reform

This paper presents a new approach to power sector reform, commencing with the objective of universal supply of electricity within 10 years, entitlement of specified quantities at low tariffs for poor households and agricultural pumpsets, and a novel way of restructuring the power structure in the states. Applying these principles and procedures to the power sector in Andhra Pradesh, the plan demonstrates that dependence on government subsidy can be done away with in five years.

An Untenable Model

An Untenable Model K BALARAMA REDDI, USHA RAMACHANDRA, T L SANKAR Sebastian Morris (

Electricity Tariffs Regulators

The Orissa Electricity Regulatory Commission (OERC) seems to take the word 'regulator' strictly literally and considers development of the power sector beyond its scope. This paper outlines the principles of retail tariff fixation and critically examines the performance of the OERC.

State Level Public Enterprises in India-An Overview

An Overview T L Sankar R K Mishra R Nandagopal This article discusses the origins, forms of organisation, objectives, growth, typology, investment and capital financing, use of investments, financial performance, return on equity and resource mobilisation in state level enterprises.

Do State Level Public Enterprises Need Memorandum of Understanding

Memorandum of Understanding?
T L Sankar R K Mishra R Nandagopal This paper examines the rationale for the introduction of the memorandum of understanding in state level public enterprises, the pre-conditions for its initiation, the institutional set-up required for the preparation and implementation of the MOU and the broad structure of what the MOU should contain for the negotiating parties. Recommendations for the successful installation of the MOU as a business system have also been incorporated.

Working of State-Level Manufacturing Public Enterprises-Promise and Performance

Public Enterprises Promise and Performance T L Sankar R K Mishra R Nandagopal The manufacturing State-level public enterprises are operating in vital areas of the economy. Their efficiency and effective working would strengthen not only their functioning but also the effectiveness of State governments as a whole. However, these enterprises suffer from many infirmities which call for suitable policy and operational reforms not merely at the State level but also at the enterprise level in each State. The structural reforms suggested in the paper could go a long way in helping them turn the corner MANUFACTURING enterprises arc a very fascinating area to study in the domain of the State-level public enterprises (SLPEs). With the direct involvement of the various State governments in the industrialisation process of the country, such enterprises are being set up in increasing numbers by every State. The budget allocations provided for equity support for these enterprises have registered a phenomenal growth. However, their working has become a matter of great concern to policy-makers in view of the non- fulfilment of their objectives to a large extent. An intensive study is required to dissect this phenomenon and to suggest measures for the turn-around of the manufacturing SLPEs. We propose to investigate in this paper the genesis, growth, objectives, investment, financing, physical and financial performance, and problems of these enterprises. The information contained in the paper has been collected from the data base on the SLPEs set up by the Planning Commission and the Ninth finance Commission at the Institute of Public Enterprise, GENESIS, GROWTH AND OBJECTIVES The manufacturing SLPEs have a long history of working to their credit. Even before independence the princely states of Travancore and Mysore had set up rubber, soap and oil factories and encouraged sericulture. The success of this direct intervention encouraged the princely States of Rajaputana, Jammu and Kashmir, Vijayanagaram and Hyderabad to set up more and more of such units. After independence and with the onset of the planned era it became obligatory on the States forming the Indian Union to participate in industrial reformation and restructuring. Many States as a result of this deliberate policy started setting up manufacturing units in the middle of the 1960s, Between 1955 and 1965, 180 manufacturing SLPEs were set up by the various States. The period 1965 to 1980 saw a great spurt in the number of and investment in these enterprises. It was in this period that the base of such units was widely diversified from soaps, detergents, sericulture, paper, mining, cement and sugar units to light and heavy engineering, steel and scooters. Many such units were set up by the Industrial Development Corporations (IDCs) in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Haryana to produce steel, paper, scooters and engineering items. It was during this period that the States in the north-east set up manufacturing enterprises to exploit the agro and forest based local resources while States such as Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra started cement, fertiliser, textiles and sugar units as a part and parcel of their area development programmes. The 1980s were a decade of consolidation for these industries. During this period, manufacturing SLPEs have come up in the area of electronics, drugs and phar maceuticals, telecommunications, beverages and computers. The takeover of sick units has also added to the portfolio of PEs in this decade as many State governments decided on socio-economic grounds on the acquisition of such units from the private sector. These units mostly include textile, tea, chemical and engineering enterprises taken over by the West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala and Tamil Nadu State governments.

Can State Level Public Enterprises in India Earn a Rate of Return

State level public enterprises (SLPEs) owe their existence more to historical factors than ideological considerations. They came into being on account of decisions in the former princely states to wind up departmental activities and organise them in the form of autonomous public enterprises. SLPEs have become a potent tool in the hands of state governments to implement public policy and account for a significant share of state capital outlays. This paper investigates whether such enterprises can earn a rate of return and if so, what can be done to achieve the same.

Red Herring of Privatisation

Red Herring of Privatisation T L Sankar Y Venugopal Reddy RAMASWAMY R lYER's review of the book Privatisation: Diversificttion of Ownership of Public Enterprises, edited by us (October 7, 1989) calls for certain clarifications.

State Level Public Enterprises in India-An Overview

An Overview T L Sankar R Nandagopal R K Mishra State level public enterprises are an important segment of public enterprises in India, being vital instruments of public policy for the states. There has been a spectacular growth in the number of these enterprises and the investment in them since the fifties. However, their financial record is poor and managerial performance chaotic Internal resource generation is dismal and their accounting systems are in disarray. This paper provides an overview and suggests certain measures that can bring them out of the present quagmire.

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