ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Remembering M K Gandhi and J C Kumarappa


This letter pays tribute to M K Gandhi and J C Kumarappa on the occasion of their death anniversary on 30 January, reflecting on their deep impact on sustainable development. Both played a crucial role in determining India’s path towards economic, social, and environmental sustainability, leaving behind a legacy that continues to inspire.

In November 1933, Gandhi started a nationwide campaign against untouchability. Through his extensive travels across the country, he realised that Indian villages had not yet recovered from the Great Depression of the 1930s and London’s decision to get off the gold standard. Contrary to other Congress leaders who focused on industrialising the cities, he concluded that attention must first be given to India’s villages. Through the idea of self-sufficiency and self-reliance, he decided to revive the village industries. Importantly, in the 1934 Congress session, Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya proposed a resolution to form the All India Village Industries Association (AIVIA). The Congress session accepted the proposal, and Gandhi, along with Kumarappa, took up residence in Maganwadi in Wardha, Maharashtra in early 1935 and worked to establish the AIVIA.

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