ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Exports of Fruits and Vegetables from Northeast India: Prospects and Challenges

The northeast region of India has a diverse agroclimatic condition that is conducive to the growth variety of tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate fruits and vegetables that are enriched with high nutrition and fibre content. Horticulture offers immense scope for the growth and development of the predominantly agrarian region, as it provides diversification in the farm sector that is essential for the generation of sustainable income and employment opportunities. The northeast region produces marketable surplus of many fruits and vegetables that can be traded both in the domestic and overseas markets. This article attempts to analyse the export potential of fruits and vegetables of the region and identifies the challenges that are impeding its rapid growth. The results of the study reveal that exports both in terms of volume and value have registered significant growth during the period under consideration; however, exports have been volatile, and it can be attributed to instability in the production of major export crops. The recent diversification of the export basket is an indicator of reduction in volatility and the volume of exports and earnings. This article also analyses the marketing strategy and suggests recommendations for boosting exports.

Effect of FDI Inflows on the Export Performance of India

The impact of foreign direct investments on the expansion of export-based foreign trade in emerging economies is explored. Examining data over 20 years, it is observed that FDI has a significant positive influence in promoting foreign trade in India in the long run. There exists no significant relationship between FDI and exports in the short run.

Reboot Export Strategies

New challenges on the trade front call for a radical restructuring of policies.

Export Performance of South Asia

South Asia’s trade structure, trade potential, supply capacity, and global market access from 1991 to 2017 are examined through empirical research using trade indexes and gravity econometric estimation. The results broadly reflect a stagnant position of South Asia in the merchandised trade structure. South Asian economies have a comparative advantage in some sectors, which are common for them, and these became their competitive export domain. Depending on their relationship, rivalry may be beneficial. India has the highest export diversification, among other criteria, and must refocus on economic integration. The export potential exists while market access and supply capacity remain intact. As South Asia is a high-consumption economy, domestic issues should be handled tactfully and regional integration must be emphasised.

Export-induced Loss in Employment and Earnings during the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented exogenous shock in the world economy unlike the global financial crisis in 2008, which was endogenously determined in the structure of capitalist financial market. Given the fact that Indian export sector significantly contributes to the Indian economy in general and employment in particular, it is worth examining how the Indian gross domestic product and exports changed in comparison with the world GDP and world exports respectively, in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020–21 vis-à-vis the GFC in 2008. Which industries are affected the most, in terms of export loss, during this COVID-19 crisis? What have been the consequences of these falling export on employment and earnings in the Indian export sector? This study estimates that in the COVID-19 year 2020–21, Indian exports have fallen by `3.74 lakh crore, with a plausible loss of direct employment by 5.06 lakh and an estimated loss of earnings around `12.4 thousand crore across 85 commodities.

 

The Indian Economy

Deadly and frightening as it appears, it is still too early to estimate the severity of India’s Covid-19 second wave. Unlike the transatlantic countries where it appears to have peaked, India’s second wave is still trending upwards. While the second wave is more devastating, India’s unpreparedness is evident. India needs to recognise that such pandemics will come again. It needs to diversify and secure its supply chains, vaccine output, and upgrade its poor healthcare infrastructure. The Indian economy has been badly hit by the pandemic, with one of the highest output losses amongst major economies. One of the possible reasons for this is the limited fiscal support despite a stringent lockdown, with most of the heavy lifting done through monetary measures. Going forward, its economy needs to overcome several challenges before it can return to its former high growth trajectory.

 

The Political Economy of Drug Quality

This paper presents an analysis of the political economy forces underlying the new conceptualisation of drug quality in the Indian pharmaceutical industry, consequent upon the process of globalisation and liberalisation and a stricter IPR regime. It examines how these forces have shaped the increasingly complex construction of drug quality, both globally and in India. It also comes up with a comprehensive multidimensional definition of drug quality incorporating a range of parameters.

Spices Export from India

Although Indian spices exports have been increasing in quantity and value and cover a large number of countries, future prospects depend on exporters' ability to meet quality standards set by importing nations. Various programmes initiated to ensure the export of clean and hygienic spices should go hand in hand with marketing and export development strategies.

Textile Exports: No Time to Lose

Alarmed by the announcement of preferential trade concessions to Pakistan by the European Union, and apprehensive that a similar package may soon be unveiled by the US, India is likely to ask the US for a higher textile export quota during prime minister Atal Behari Vajpayee’s visit to Washington this month. The government and industry are fearful that the move by the major markets for India’s textiles and garments will deal a further blow to already grim export prospects. During AprilAugust 2001 overall exports fell by 2.3 per cent from their yearago levels; textile exports, however, collapsed by a huge 17.3 per cent during the same period. With the global economy already lurching towards recession and additional strains caused by the terror attacks in the US and the subsequent strikes against Afghanistan, India may find it increasingly difficult to meet the government’s export growth target of 12 per cent for the current fiscal year, since textiles account for over 30 per cent of the country’s total export earnings.

Improving India's Exports Improving India's Exports

India's garment and textile exports are likely to face fresh challenges with the phasing out of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement by 2005, as well as several regional trade treaties, such as NAFTA. Strong concerted policy action is needed, following up on the abolition of small-scale industry reservation for the garment sector, to enable it to grow rapidly and provide foreign exchange and employment in the Indian economy.

Basis of China's Competitiveness

Absence of a land market, production for export, an educated labour force and a greater identification of labourers in a large number of enterprises (the township and village enterprises) with the results of their labour are some of the factors accounting for China's higher productivity and thus competitiveness in the world market.

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