ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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A Shift to Green Hydrogen Economy by 2030: An Exploration of Barriers and Roadmap for Transition

The world is badly in need of an emission-free economy as the greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere at the same rate as is followed now shall result in a 4°C increase in temperature, which shall be catastrophically perilous to sustaining life on earth. In order to prevent such a mishap, the world needs to embrace a transition of energy supply and consumption from carbon-based, non-renewable energy sources to clean, low-carbon energy system, for which renewable electricity, green hydrogen, and the synergy between the two offer the solution. The hydrogen ecosystem development in India is at an incipient stage, and policy priorities of the government are instrumental in accelerating the development as an early adopter country and to reap the benefits thereof. The key drivers to adopt green hydrogen are the falling renewable electricity tariff, government objectives for net-zero emissions related to energy systems, and the susceptibility of green hydrogen to storage and conversion as an energy carrier. The various barriers to adoption and transition to green hydrogen economy have been identified and discussed, the policy perspectives to be adopted by the government to overcome the barriers are discussed and a roadmap has been suggested for implementation, considering the gestation period of transition, which may be 10 to 20 years advocating immediate action on the part of policy makers to adopt a climate for transition at the earliest in view of the pressing need for transition to decarbonise various sectors of the economy.

Climate Crisis and Environmental Degradation

“Climate refugees” are on the rise with people losing their lands and livelihoods due to climate hazards. India is one of the most vulnerable countries and suffers from the severity of the climate crisis. People living along the shoreline are in jeopardy because of extreme weather events. In the last 26 years, severe erosion has changed the coastline. Appropriate policy support is necessary to build climate resilience.


Framework for India’s Long-term Strategy for Curbing Climate Change

A long-term strategy is needed to mitigate the processes in India that lead to climate change. This strategy, if implemented through a proper institutional framework and after including the crucial stakeholders in the decision-making process, will have important implications for policymaking.

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has reiterated the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities, but has not referred to historical responsibility. How important is historical responsibility and what does it imply? How is one going to differentiate without historical responsibility? What would be India's responsibility? How do India's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution targets compare with its responsibility?

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